Fox Sports article When a gene replacement is discovered, it often means something new is happening in a cell.
Researchers in the United States are investigating how stem cells called ESCs are able to replace an old gene with one that was recently inserted.
This new gene has to be a gene that makes ESCs, which are cells that can take up carbon dioxide.
A gene for carbon dioxide production was found to have a similar function as the gene for an enzyme that can make ammonia.
The new gene, however, is not involved in carbon dioxide-making.
The researchers were able to identify a gene called COX-1 that was inserted into the ESC cell, and it replaces a gene from a neighboring gene.
The gene that replaced COX1 also replaced a gene in the nucleus of the ESC, which is crucial for the cell to grow.
This discovery was published in the journal Cell on August 1, 2016.
“It is very exciting to see that this gene is actually functional in the cells,” says Jia Zhang, the senior author of the study and a researcher at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in Arlington, Virginia.
The genes are called ESC-2 and ESC-3, respectively.
The cells that are produced are called G3.1.3.
The scientists have now identified a gene for COX3, which they believe to be related to COX2, the enzyme that helps regulate COX4, which regulates COX5, which controls COX6, which governs COX7.
The two genes are located in the same part of the cell.
They’re called COXP-2.
“Our finding suggests that they’re related,” Zhang says.
The study shows that cells can use a new, different gene in response to a challenge, and this gene may be used to change behavior.
“What we’ve done here is we have the first step toward finding a way to make a whole new cell type in cells that was never used before,” Zhang adds.
Zhang says that the genes may have been discovered in the lab in the 1970s.
The findings suggest that a gene might be the basis for the genetic switch.
The idea that a new genetic switch may be involved in the development of the ability to repair damage is “exciting,” Zhang admits.
“This has the potential to change the way we think about what makes a cell, a cell type, and what it looks like,” she says.
“We’ve never seen anything like this before, and now we have an idea of what could happen.”
Zhang says the gene replacement could help in the treatment of diseases such as cancer.
“If the cells are growing cells that don’t have COX enzymes, there may be an increased resistance to cancer cells,” she adds.
“But if we know that the cells have an altered COX gene, then we can actually modify the cell and make them less resistant to cancer.”
Scientists have identified about 5,000 genes in the human genome, and Zhang says this is the first time scientists have been able to find the new gene.
Zhang hopes to have more of the genes identified in human cells and in other species.
This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health.
The Cell and Developmental Biology Research Network is funded by the Howard G. Hughes Medical Research Institute, Howard Hughes Career Development Grant, and National Institutes on Aging.
The article was written by Julie Pappas and is republished with permission.